The Photographs in Machu Picchu Tours: In addition to other skills, Bingham was an excellent photographer. Certainly for the expedition to Machu Picchu in 1912, the main purpose was excavations at Machu Picchu tours. His contribution is in producing a clear record of the Inca ruins. He also encouraged other members of the expedition photographers use the Kodak 3-A and other panoramic cameras to photograph the Inca citadel Machu Picchu.
Like many of the photographs of the Yale Peruvian expedition are in private hands; complete collections are in the Peabody Museum at Yale, the National Geographic Society and the Hispanic Society of America.
If possible annotations made by photographers Yale Peruvian expedition used. These are indicated in italics.
PHOTOGRAPHERS OF PERUVIAN EXPEDITION OF YALE TO MACHU PICCHU TOURS (1911-1915):
- Hiram Bingham, in his shop in Machu Picchu, 1912.
- Hiram Bingham, herding the mule at the end of the expedition of 1911.
- Hiram Bingham with other members of the expedition of Yale and Peru at the end of the successful expedition of Yale dignitaries.
- Poster armed files of National Geographic, April 1913.
- Excavation below Ñusta Isppana, White Shell, 1912.
- “One of our porters crossing the river Pampaconas”
- “Saavedra and his Inca Pottery”
- “Deep in the jungle of Pampaconas river …”
- “The same Spirit descended from Inca Pampa”
- “Makeshift bridge to cross the Urubamba, 1912”
- View of Machu Picchu from the camp of the expedition made its entry in early July 1912 About, August 17 exhibits in this space progress … “The sacred place before excavation at Machu Picchu tours … “; “Defenders of Machu Picchu …”
- One of the “family kits”, known as the industrial sector …
- The sacred plaza from South machu picchu …
- “The Inca intihuatana made by the builders of Machu Picchu”
George Eaton digging near the west wall of the main temple of Machu Picchu, 1912.
“The first burial in a cave containing Machu Picchu a human skull”
“… Dr. Eaton and his Indian helpers during the excavation of a human skeleton”
“Old road to Machu Picchu”
Photographing Machu Picchu tours, 1912.
Drawings by Yale Peruvian expeditions to Machu Picchu Tours:
Machu Picchu: the method used “eyes Pull”
Machu Picchu: the power of a gate of the citadel
Plane Ñusta Isppana
Bridge built over the Urubamba (Sacred Valley of the Incas)
Machu Picchu, “group of three doors”
Machu Picchu “niche group of strangers”
Machu Picchu, “witty group and private garden”
Machu Picchu: level of “sacred space and” bird’s eye “. View of the “sacred Square and” serpent rock “
Map of the central part of Machu Picchu
Roads around Machu Picchu and Huayna Picchu
MAPS TOURS MACHU PICCHU:
- The Inca Empire
The Area Around Cusco
Machu Picchu Tours:
trek to Machu Picchu by hiram binghamPoco are given really realize how much is due to the Peruvians. Scarce is also the number of people who properly appreciate the fact that they gave us the potato, maize varieties and so useful to man as quinine and cocaine. Their civilization, which employed thousands of years to develop, was characterized by intensive genius, artistic skill and knowledge of agriculture that has not been surpassed later. In making beautiful pottery and weaving fine fabrics, equaled the best that Egypt and Greece could offer. Although the Incas ruled millions of vassals under a benevolent despotism, which did not allow anyone to suffer from hunger or cold, did not possess a written language and even hieroglyphics. As a result, our knowledge depends on what we see or what we left, aided by the chroniclers of the sixteenth century, contemporaries of Pizarro and the conquistadores, many of which look its history and politics with European eyes. The Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, for example, spent forty years in Spain before writing his famous story about their ancestors.
trekking to Machu Picchu by hiram binghamCuatrocientos years ago, the last of the Incas lived in one of the most inaccessible regions of the Andes, which extends between the Apurimac and Urubamba rivers, two major tributaries of the Amazon. Here they were isolated, the part of Peru that had fallen under the power of Pizarro and the conquistadores, by mighty precipices, gorges three miles high, canyons granite more than a mile deep, glaciers, rain forests and in short, powerful currents. For thirty-five years enjoyed virtual independence, similar to that which their ancestors had for centuries. Two capitals were: Vitcos built military outpost in a hurry, they received occasionally refugees, Spanish Augustinian missionaries and emissaries, and Vilcapampa, the main residence, superbly built shrine which never managed to penetrate any Spanish.
With the death of the last Inca, in 1571, was abandoned Vitcos. Fortress atop a mountain, it was inconvenient as a place of residence. His name was forgotten and there was great confusion about its site when we discover it. The royal city of Vilcapampa was completely lost. Sacred shrine, hidden at the edge of cliffs in a great big cannon, the secret of its existence was probably buried for three long centuries in the shadow of the mountains of Machu Picchu tours. And those ruins then took the name of the mountain, because when found, no one knew what to call them.
This wonderful Machu Picchu Inca sanctuary tours, lost for three centuries, finally became a real Mecca for ambitious tourists. Whoever was in South America I wanted to see. Previously used two or three days of hard travel from Cusco, by mule or on foot; but can now be reached by train and mule in a day. Perhaps soon there will be a track car. In addition, the Cusco, which was a week of Lima, can now be achieved through the plane … in a few hours! Pilgrims come from both Buenos Aires and Santiago as New York and Washington. Everyone agrees with the late Frank Chapman, of beloved memory, that “the sublimity of their neighborhoods, the wonder of its location and the nature and mystery of its buildings, the Western Hemisphere has nothing comparable.”
Once discovered, in 1911, Yale University and the National Geographic Society made it possible for me to explore the region and to publish them critically the results of my studies. These reports have been long exhausted. Meanwhile, there appeared several papers, and professional archaeologists extended our knowledge of the Incas to the point that it seemed advisable to gather all that knew of Machu Picchu: its origins, how it came to be lost and how it was eventually discovered, and present it as now I do, in popular form, for the benefit of those who feel curious about the Incas and the holy city that managed to hide from the Spanish conquistadors.
At the heart of the country, about fifty miles away from the capital city of Cusco is the Grand Canyon of the Urubamba, one of the most beautiful places in the world. It was impossible for him centuries travelers recorriesen because a sheer granite cliff that rises two thousand feet from the banks of the river, defying any effort was made to cross it. The planters who cultivated cocoa and sugar in the lower valley could only get their products to market across a snowy step as high as our famous Pikes l’eak. Later they persuaded the Peruvian government to opened a path, piercing one side of the great granite cliff. They used it for several years without even suspecting that the highest of the steep brow, two thousand feet above them, lay the ruins of a great Inca sanctuary. Raimondi, great explorer of Peru’s geography, ignored. Careful Gazetteer of Peru, Paz Soldan, not mentioned, although its existence was rumored since 1875 Charles Wiener, energetic French explorer, the sought without success. They were visited by only several burly and modern mestizos few Indians. A growing number of ambitious treasure hunters were trying to find the last Inca capital. I new path made possible the discovery of the Peruvian expeditions realizes that in this volume.
THE ORIGIN OF THE INCAS – MACHU PICCHU TOURS:
Travel to Machu Picchu with expeditions hiram binghamMientras most notable civilization that discovered the Spaniards to conquer Peru, more desire longs for the Incas and their predecessors had learned the art of writing or at least studied sculpting hieroglyphs, leaving inscriptions that over time could decipher and translate into some form of communication some history. Students of art and architecture ensure that the period of time required for the development of many skills and abilities displayed by the Incas in the creation of beautiful objects must have been as long as that required artists from Egypt and Greece.
The historical chronicle of Egypt and classical Mediterranean lands entrusted to IUE fortunately tables, inscriptions and manuscripts. It was carved in stone or clay and written on papyrus or parchment. So we know something positive about the centuries covered by this development. Moreover, connoisseurs of ancient Peru are not as caring support on which to base their research. We must gather contradictory traditions that were first written in the time of the Spanish conquest, hundreds of years after the events. We rely on clothing and pottery fragments, ruined temples and earthworks, materials that can be obtained from the graves, and the study of what we know was obtained in agriculture, horticulture and animal industry.From all this material should induce what is in the best a fragmentary story with details that no two experts that conform!
The best thing you can do is patiently study the evidence offered by the climate, physical geography and anthropology of the region, and use it to build a reasonable story that at least can not be destroyed by incontrovertible evidence. Anyone who has read the stories that come from the first Spanish conquistadors and their descendants, such as Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, or Christian missionaries, priests, monks and Jesuits who learned the language of the Incas and made information about what looked and found, as well as what they heard, knows that his statements are often so contradictory and likely to produce confusion, who can hardly be said to be indisputable. Those parts that the Spanish chroniclers contradict the known habits of the mountain and the physical evidence obtained by the exploration, excavation and observation, as less likely to be accepted by its verisimilitude proven statements.
empire-inca-machupicchuEl first comprehensive account in English of the civilization of the Incas is the heroic historian William H. Prescott, who overcame the disadvantage of partial blindness and ineptitude to travel through patient accumulation of all the books and manuscripts that could procure for Peru. Their life histories of conquest, both in this country and Mexico, must remain delightfully classic to delight generations of readers. Necessarily his account of the conquest of Peru is based broadly on Garcilaso, born in Cuzco in 1539 and son of an Inca princess. Unfortunately for the accuracy of his famous Royal Commentaries of the Incas, Garcilaso left Peru when he was a teenager and never returned to his homeland since he lived most of his life in Spain, without writing their stories held the Incas to old age.
During his years in Europe, Garcilaso undoubtedly suffered often with the comments made by his contemporaries, who tended to be dismissive of the descendants of the “pagan” toasted skin of the Andes. Presumably often repeated stories of his mother’s people, their achievements, their civilization and their ancestors. He knew what would please and surprise his European auditors, that would seem admirable and worthy of praise at the same time, also knew what might shock them. It is therefore quite natural that in the course of thirty or forty years of his life in Spain, before beginning to write his book, had come to believe that the people of his mother was much more like Europeans than what it says reality. Europeans wanted to admire his maternal ancestors, and wrote according to his desire. Consequently, there are many pages, both in his work as in the stories of Prescott, based on Garcilaso, who have a strong European atmosphere.
inti-raymi-machupicchuOtro writer, an ecclesiastical lawyer of the seventeenth century, which has been recognized recently wrote a different book. His name was Fernando Montesinos, and in 1629, the next century of conquest, seems to have gone to Peru as director of the Viceroy, the Count of Chinchon, whose name is remembered because his wife was healed of malaria with the use of one specific than the few in the world, a very important discovery of the Incas, who called kina bark and named quinine or “Peruvian bark”. As the Count of Chinchon was instrumental in the introduction of this extraordinary medicine in Europe, the plant is named after him and is called cinchona.
The secretary of the viceroy, Montesinos, was educated and seems to have been devoted to historical research. He traveled extensively in Peru and published several books. He wrote a history of the Incas, Memories Ancient Records of Peru, which is spoiled by the introduction, in which, as might be expected of an orthodox church, argues that Peru was settled under the direction of Ophir, great-grandson of Noah . Despite his clerical prejudices, his work is of great value. The late Sir Clements Markham, the first student of Inca history, is inclined to give great credence to the statements of Montesinos. Of the wise elders-whom he could refer to the Land of the Incas- got a long history of pre-Inca kings named Amautas, who seem to have been responsible for many acquisitions that naturally attribute to the Incas, as we use the term to encompass culture and civilization discovered in the Peruvian highlands. Montesinos says that “the fifty-third of the kings of Peru” was called Huilcanota or Vilcanota. Huilca is the name of a plant which the natives obtained a narcotic that is aspired by the nose and the effects were surprisingly toxic, causing visions. We have no means to make sure, however, to what extent may have been the sovereign who discovered the virtue that contain those seeds.
Travel to Machu Picchu with inti party raymiNo however, gave his name to the passage now called La Raya and is located on the dividing line between the Amazon basin and Lake Titicaca Puno; or at least step Vilcanota was called by the Incas. Montesinos is of opinion that the king was given the name of the step due to the great victory won there. Its capital was in Cusco, where it was reported by the news of provincial governors that great hordes of people, barbarians, coming from the plains of Argentina, invading the Bolivian plateau and the basin of Lake Titicaca in Puno.
King Vilcanota sent spies for details on the enemy forces. Knowing that two great armies were also assembled a powerful army and stationed himself in the high and snowy La Raya pass, fortifying it. Montesinos says: “He gave battle to the First Army, who won easily because it was in disarray. The second, to learn about new, arrived very confusedly help from his teammates and was also conquered. The king came to Cusco triumphant, carrying out the losers, naked and with his hands tied. From this event the elders called Huilcanota the king. “
Montesinos says that King Vilcanota successfully managed to pacify his kingdom, he had a long reign and left many children. One of them named Ttípac Yupanqui, “rich in all virtues,” also had many children and was a wise ruler. He had the good will of his friends and neighbors, who changed gifts. He taught his children the art of governing and surrounded himself with experienced counselors. His grandson, Tacco Huaman was the sixty-first of Amautas. In his time there were bad omens, comets and earthquakes. His heir and successor was called Pachacuti.
inti-raymi-tours-machu-peruincatrailPachacuti was neither prudent nor safe. Unfortunately, as time began again the barbarian migrations, “large armies of fierce people”, from the east and south. “Filled with dismay and sadness” due to earthquakes, comets and other bad omens and gloomy forecasts of sorcerers and soothsayers, offered sacrifices to their gods and tried to make all the preparations that were possible, fortifying camps and defense sites . He learned from spies that again moved through northern barbarian hordes through the Lake Titicaca, felt awed, he spread his forces, sent captains to the Bolivian plateau, sent others to defend various steps and himself moved with the main body of his army to La Raya Pass, Vilcanota his famous ancestor had fortified. He built a fortress whose ruins can still be seen.
Instead of waiting behind the walls and plains time to attack the enemy at a disadvantage, he went to meet him, against the advice of the captains, and gave battle. His troops were armed with slings, maces and spears. The enemy had bows and arrows. It was a ghastly strife. Conducted at the top of a golden litter, Pachacuti did everything possible to encourage his troops. Unfortunately, it was an easy arch enemy target. Mortally wounded by an arrow, his death caused consternation among the soldiers, who, swoon, fled to a fortress with the body of their king.
Then, secretly, they took the spoils in the evening to a distant and secure site, called Tampu-tocco, or “a place of temporary abode where he had windows” or “Tavern Window”. There they gathered the remnants of the army of Pachacuti.
After such a disaster, says Montesinos, “The provinces of the kingdom, knowing the king’s death, rose in rebellion and the people of Tampu-tocco had many disputes between them regarding the choice of a sovereign.”
It was thus lost and destroyed the government of Peruvian monarchy. She did not recover for four years and the knowledge of the letters went astray. In each province chose its own king and who is appointed as the heir of Pachacuti was Titu Quicho Huaman, a very young boy. Few men were loyal and they could not be compared with other people. They went to Tampu-tocco and there proclaimed the king, because, due to riots, no one could live in Cusco: everything was disturbance. And when the men were coming, little by little, I live in Tampu-tocco under the protection of the king, Cusco was largely deserted, and there remained only the ministers of the temple.
“The faithful vassals were happy in Tampu-tocco with the boy king, for there, according to legend Amautas, the celebrated cave where they originated and where the Incas claimed as a certainty that there has never been earthquakes, pestilence is land or camera shake. And if misfortune was pursuing the boy king, they could hide in the cave as a sacred place. King grew up and lived with great restraint for many years. He called himself king of Tampu-tocco and not of Cusco, but on certain days would u worship in the temple (Cusco). He left as his heir Cozque Huaman Titu, who lived twenty five years. Neither he nor his successors has nothing remarkable to return to Cusco. “
Montesinos gives the names and duration of the reigns of a number of sovereigns Tampu-tocco, over a period of about four years. Then came the reign of one called Pachacuti VII, which began to regain some of the cities and provinces that were lost at the time of the barbarian invasion. “As people obeyed him with little loyalty and was greatly corrupted in religion and customs, took steps to conquer them, because he said that if that people communicated with it, the corrupt with great vices that had been delivered as raised animals. So he sent messengers everywhere asking the leaders to put an end to superstition and the worship of many gods and worshiped animals, no more than a very superficial result amendment and the death of the ambassadors. The king made great sacrifices and called to Illatici shall flee Cocha. He was told that the cause of the pestilence had been the letters, and that no one should use them or pretend to revive them, because a big bad would come from its use. So Tupac Cauri ordered by law, on pain of death, that no one should trade on quilcas, who were the scrolls and leaves of trees that used to write or use some kind of cards. They observed this order of oracles with such care, that Peruvians will never again use the letters. And because of that, a long time later, a scholar amauta invented some characters, burned alive; and so, from that time onwards, they used threads and quipos.
Is difficult not to wonder if it may be true that there was a time when the ancient Peruvians, as skilled in other chapters, such inventive development of the arts and agriculture, and to breed new plants and animals acclimate, had also conceived the idea of written reports, and that would have been prevented from doing so for fear of the superstition of the people and the priests and soothsayers. And it’s not impossible.
hike-to-machu-picchu-peruincatrailSe commonly believed in Cusco during the time Montesinos wrote that Tampu-tocco, the “Taberna de la Ventana”, about twenty miles from Cusco was in a place known then and now as Paccari Tampu or “Taberna del Amanecer”. So we are not surprised to find that Montesinos says that the king built a “kind of college where nobles attended the exercises of the soldiery and the children were taught how to count by quipos, bringing together the different colors that served as letters, by which built up a little knowledge. Sure the martial and loyalty of his people, determined to conquer the rebels. For this purpose, all the men carried weapons but did not place the attack because they were notable earthquakes that ruined many buildings throughout the Cusco region and the rivers they went out for dry sites and ran for many days by ditches where never was above water, and destroyed many cities. After this came a plague that killed countless people, and said that only amauta Tampu-tocco had not seen pestilence; fact that Manco Capac led to establishing his court there. “And in that place they lived for over five hundred years, until it became too small for an active and growing nation.
The most significant part of this story about what happened before Manco Capac, the first Inca ruler called to establish his court in Tampu-tocco, is that as the site was far enough from Cusco or earthquakes or pestilence will reached. Must have been a much greater distance than Paccarictampu small village where the climate is too cold for windows and is only a few leagues from Cuzco.
walking and hiking to Machu Picchu toursHay many stories about the rise of Manco Capac, who, when leader was established in the town, its people gathered to see how I could try to give them new lands. Pachacuti Yamqui Salcamayhua, descended from a long line of Incas whose grandparents lived in Cusco at the time of the Spanish conquest, wrote in 1620 a report on the antiquities of Peru, where the story of the Incas as it was transmitted to Ion descendants of former rulers of Peru. He informs us that Manco Capac, after consultation with his brothers, decided to leave with them “Starts Hill where the sun rises” and managed to get to Cusco and settle there. Manco married one of his own sisters d object not lose caste and that no other family ariseth through his marriage to the height of his. did good laws, conquered many provinces and is considered the founder of the Inca dynasty. serranos of Peru were made soon willingly under his splint and brought him rich presents. Inca, as it was called, was recognized as my powerful bosses, the bravest of the fighters and the luckiest of the warriors in the Andes. Their captains and soldiers were brave, disciplined and they were well armed. All business prospered greatly. “Then he ordered work to be executed in the place of his birth, consisting of a masonry wall with three windows, which were emblems of the house of his parents who descended.” Windows they were named according to their paternal and maternal grandparents and uncles. We will have occasion to refer again to these three windows.
Their descendants gradually extended their power and dominion until at the time of the Spanish conquest, had subjugated almost all tribes and kingdoms of the Andes and the western coast from Quito in Ecuador to northern Argentina and central Chile, to the south. Ruled as a benevolent despotism and his armies were powerful. Their people to speak Quichua language was taught; essentially agricultural, delighted practicing the art of peace over war. Did not like the soldiers, and as we have noted, they were called “enemies”. Finally, after about three centuries, the rulers were softened and became addicted to luxury.