Machu Picchu Inca citadel of the great Inca Empire “Wonder of the World”
The majestic citadel of Machu Picchu is about 7,000 m. above the sea and is cradled between the Andes mountain range of Peru. The great city of Machu Picchu tours in Quechua means ‘Pico Viejo’ where it rises inca_trail_peru_mundo_turismo3sobre the Urubamba Valley (Sacred Valley of the Incas) 80 km northwest of Cusco. Its pre-Columbian Inca construction is also known as the “Lost City of the Incas”, and is one of the best known symbols of the Inca Empire. Machu Picchu was declared a Peruvian Historical Sanctuary in 1,981 and a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1,983. It is one of the most legendary and impressive main sets of ruins in the world and a valuable tourist attraction at national or international level worldwide.
History of Machu Picchu tours:
At the time of the Incas started building Machu Picchu around the year 1,430 AD, but was deserted 100 years ago, but later was like an official site, at the time of the Spanish conquest.
In 1,911 an 11 year old led the Yale professor Hiram Bingham, who was actually looking Vilcabamba, the last Inca refuge, a rugged mountain where I first saw the “lost city” of Machu Picchu and did in the history books. The purpose of Machu Picchu Tours remains a mystery, but the leading theory is that it was used as a retreat for the Inca rulers of the empire. It is believed that no more than 760 people lived there at one time, and less in the rainy season.
It was so well hidden that the Spanish conquistadors missed it completely, although local always knew of its existence. In September 2,007, Peru and Yale University reached an agreement regarding the return of the relics that Hiram Bingham had taken from the site.
Getting to Machu Picchu tours:
Initially in his first trip to Machu Picchu Hiram Bingham road six days in the mountains of the Inca trail. These days many recreate their steps and walk to the place where the famous Inca Trail (Inca Jungle trail), an exciting and authentic experience. There are a few different ways to get there:
Trek the Inca Trail (reservation months in advance is a must)
Trek an alternative track, as the Salkantay trek, lares trek, qosqo huchuy, vilcabamba or trekking to Choquequirao
Travel Adventure, where you can also do some biking, rafting, ziplining, etc.
Train to Machu Picchu from Cusco or Ollantaytambo
Hydroelectric Bus. From there you can walk to Aguas Calientes or take the train
To visit the citadel have to buy a ticket in advance. You can not buy at the entrance.
Your Climate Machu Picchu tours:
In Peru, the rainy season extends from November (or December) until the end of March. The months of September, October, November and December have a nice average temperature. The dry season is from May to September. The warmest month is September. The coldest month is July and the wettest month is January. June is the driest month.
High season / low season to visit Machu Picchu tours:
The busiest time is during the dry season (May-September), especially from June to August. The least busy time in February when the Inca Trail is closed. The busiest day is during the hours of 10 am-2 pm.
The flora and fauna in Machu Picchu tours:
The flora and fauna are abundant and diverse. Plant life is common pisonayes, q’eofias, alders, puya palm trees, ferns, and over 90 types of orchids. The wildlife in the reserve is part of the spectacled bear, the cock of the rock – or `tunqui ‘tankas, wildcats, and a variety of butterflies and insects native to the area.
Important Bits to Machu Picchu tours:
There are plenty of interesting places to discover and explore. Taking a guided tour gives you a better understanding of the city.
Sun Gate (Inti Punku Machupicchu) – In the Inca trail that comes through the door of the sun, what is the first thing you set eyes on. If you can not make your way back down the path and up the hill. From this top view, each valley is obtained. It’s a pretty hard (1-1.5 hours each way) hike, but definitely worth it. Try to get the first bus from Aguas Calientes in time to catch the sun coming down the hill and at the door.
Temple of the Sun – Machu Picchu – The stone in the temple is wonderful. It is the best example of stone near unique and extraordinary setting of the Incas. If you examine it from the side, you see down the stone staircase in the main square.
Intihuatana – Machupicchu – A carved stone in a way where on specific days at dawn shadows can be seen. The name is taken from the Quechua words, the sun (Inti), and take (Huatana) Temple of the Condor – From the wings of the condor is a chamber with grooves cut into the stone to secure manacles hand. The torturer may have been here to whip the prisoner, and the well is where the blood of the victim runs away! The condor is a symbol of cruel justice.
Three Windows Temple – Machu Picchu – In the real sector. The buildings in this area are large with huge lintels rock weighing up to three tons, typical of Inca imperial architecture. This temple, along with the temple intihuatana beginning and constitute what Bingham called the Sacred Plaza. He believes that these mountains (previously five) represent the three mythological caves, from which the Ayar brothers, children of the sun, entered the world. No broken pieces of pottery were found here, suggesting that pots would have been crushed as part of the ritual.
Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu in Cusco, Peru, is one of the best known natural protected internationally. It is part of a group of privileged goods within the World Heritage List, with the double declaration as a World Cultural and Natural Heritage. He entered the official life of modern Peru almost since its “discovery” in 1911 So Hiram Bingham arrived, as directed by residents of the area, up the mountain Machu Picchu tours (Young Mountain, in Quechua), and gave released its monumental citadel, involving the National Geographic Society and published his now famous to the Western world.
The interest in visiting the Citadel of Machu Picchu tours in the heart of the current protected natural area was increased with time, generating all the economic movement that accompanies the places of tourist importance. That demand would motivate decisions by the Peruvian government, aimed at implementing services for visitors were taken. Thus, the Andean Sanctuary constitutes a paradigmatic example of partial planning, motivated by economic factors, not equated with conservation policies, social, without adequate investment in soil management and control of works, among others. Naturally, in a country with an economy highly developed as that of Peru, income became attractive to settlers from various areas moved to urban center consisting of Machu Picchu Pueblo (known as Aguas Calientes) at the foot of the mountain and the side of the railway station of Puente Ruinas.
It took 70 years since its “discovery” tours to Machu Picchu was declared a Protected Natural Area by Supreme Decree 001-81-AA of the Ministry of Agriculture (1). The same year, the Ministry of Tourism stated by Supreme Resolution 038- 81-ITI / TUR National Tourist Reserve. Later, in 1983, Law 23765 was declared Cultural Heritage (2). But it was not until 1998 when Chief Resolution 085-98 by INRENA, the first Master Plan for the Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu tours is offered.
The said Master Plan was issued in the midst of the controversy generated by the project to build a cable car access between Machu Picchu and the Inca Citadel. There was a conflict of interest between the government, which sought to give the green light to said work and the demands raised by the UNESCO World Heritage governing body. Having participated in the debate (3), I became the project study analysis of that Master Plan.
Declares Historic Sanctuary surface 32 592 hectares, located in the District of Machu Picchu, province of Urubamba, Cusco Department and to be called Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu. According to Peruvian legislation the designation protected areas, equivalent to protected natural areas in Spain is used.
Machu Picchu that time had already been inscribed on the World Heritage List in Record 54, and as a cultural and natural.
Machu Picchu has many complex problems: lack of comprehensive regional planning, delineation of the extent and limits of the Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchurealizada without technical criteria, lack of social participation, employment and chaotic land use, especially in Machu Picchu Pueblo, lack of comprehensive treatment of the Rio Vilcanota-Urubamba, pollution, poor conservation of habitats and species and deficiencies in the quality of tourist services, among others. The specific plan analysis we can say that it is a poor tool and in many ways counterproductive to address them. The study has led us to the following conclusions regarding the Master Plan of Machu Picchu:
Weakly sustainable Origin: plan emerges UNESCO requirement and not as an internal process. Part of a workshop with participation limited and ill-posed.
The objectives are not well determined. The generals have been taken from previous papers, so they are not coordinated with the strategies proposed.
There is a divorce between ENP management and planning at regional level and Vilcanota-Urubamba basin (tributary of the Amazon basin) river.
The theming taken as a guide strategies lacks technical content logically and scientifically raised, creating a general mess in the Plan.
Was not taken into account the indispensable participation of the people involved.
The text contains contradictions and inconsistencies from one to another topic.
Issues such as participation, education and awareness, scientific research, quality services are poorly treated.
The issue of management of Cultural Heritage is virtually ignored.
No specific plans have been developed (Public Use, Monitoring and Control, Research, etc.)
There are serious distortions in the treatment of some topics.
A lack of coordinated management and trans is appreciated. The various chapters of the plan seem uncoordinated studies together.
The challenge of managing technical and scientifically Machu Picchu is evident. Right now Peru is in the first year of democratic rule after a transition period that ended earlier, marked by authoritarian Fujimori. This is a hope for change. There is also a high-level technical authority represented by the Program Machu Picchu, the result of cooperation with the government of Finland. It has created a management unit, if it has not produced the expected results so far, could mean a coherent management with new tools and proper planning. It is essential to enter a process of thorough review of the Master Plan. Otherwise this first planning experience will become a negative precedent. We must start to rethink the limits of the current ENP with ecosystem approaches, making it an integral element of all planning and management at the regional level. Should be undertaken a serious task to achieve a system of active management to the Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu, also become a model for all the National System of Protected Areas in Peru.
For example, treatment of the cable car as if it does exist, along with the media in use without even requiring the minimum essential for viability studies. It is worth mentioning that the project to build, was adopted without EIA or other studies, during the government of A. Fujimori. The work did not materialize due to a strong national and international campaign, and the intervention of UNESCO, who put minimum requirements such as approval of a management plan. Subsequently, the transitional government of Valentin Paniagua decided to shelve the project because not offer minimum technical guarantees. There are still, however, areas of concern, due to statements by Vice Minister of Tourism of the current government in the sense of rethinking the project. However, a technical, open and participatory process followed, this may even be the opportunity to comprehensively study the issue of access, taking into account factors such as load capacity, the need for non-polluting means physically or visually, etc .
Protect endangered species such as the spectacled bear (Spectacled Bear), and the cock of the rock (Rupicula peruviana) and the archaeological remains.
Preserving a peculiar flora and fauna, and scenic beauties of the surrounding forests, and contribute to the protection of archaeological sites located in the. Much of the beauty and charm surrounding Machu Picchu, the spectacular natural surroundings: mountain forests of this historic sanctuary of Machu Picchu.
It was discovered scientifically in 1911 by Hiram Bingham. It is known as the Lost City of the Incas, is also considered one of the wonders of the world due to manipulation and size of the stones comprising the legendary and spectacular building, which highlights its terraces, its terraces, its strengths, walls, cemeteries, and aqueducts over chasms, all surrounded by enormous mountains that give a globally recognized and that makes it a prime attraction for international and domestic tourism flows extraordinary landscape.
Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu is located between the districts of Machu Picchu and Ollantaytambo, province of Urubamba, department of Cusco, has an area of 38,448 hectares; and protects the environment, cultural, archaeological and historical natural resources located within the sanctuary; also protects flora, fauna and landscape that surrounds not only the Inca city of Machu Picchu, but the extensive network of archaeological remains united by the Inca Trail. Part of representative wildlife sanctuary consists of the Cock of the Rock (national bird of Peru), the Andean bear ucumari, the dwarf deer or sachacabra and a variety of bird species (423 species). As for the flora, you can find over 350 species of orchids, many of them unique in the world, including the presence of 12 ecological zones are distinguished. Architecturally the sanctuary is divided into sectors or areas, these are:
Agriculture in Machupicchu: surrounded by a succession of terraces of different types and sizes, possibly fulfilling two main functions: containment of cultivation and erosion caused by rain. Most prominently state are the platforms of the current entrance to Machu Picchu. Are launched from the group room projecting ongoing access to the top of the mountain to a large rectangular room. Clearly from the upper terraces of the entrance way to present agricultural functions fulfilled sarunas (flown stairs and be wider). Instead the lower platforms do not present such formations so served containment. No channels are observed by not be necessary since the permanent continuous rainfall and humidity prevailing causes plants to grow without risk. The only water channel that surrounds to the urban sector is going through a central platform. In the agricultural sector are five rooms with deposit characteristics collpas calls or barns.
Lookout in Machupicchu: it consists of a three-walled building with several windows, is before the main entrance. Since this building is scenically observes the two main sectors: agricultural and urban, in addition to the landscape.
Top Rock Cemetery and ritual in Machu Picchu: the Inca cities in all the burials were made in the peripheral areas of the city, so Cusco archaeologists found bones. At the top of cobbles (rocks), which belong to the site is found, indicating that offerings such stones were performed. Besides the small field with a granite rock carved steps is observed, but the most characteristic is the presence of a way to ring piercing, whose purposes are unknown. This ritual is very similar to rock Ñusta-Hispanic in Vilcabamba. On the upper surface an anatomic space and to place a person in supine position is observed.
Urban Sector in Machu Picchu: the agricultural sector is delimited by a dry moat, parallel a long stairway leading to the front door is observed. This sector holds the major architectural elements of a city (llaqta) inka where the talented care and quality of prehistoric builders is seen as a whole are granite rock pretty much different from those used in Cusco hardness. The city has stroke U, north a large religious sector sub temples is observed; south, all the rooms and workshops platafórmicos terraces that Bingham military group call.
Sun Temple at Machu Picchu: a semicircular construction built on solid rock, existing granite block adapted to the natural curvature whose perimeter is 10.50 m. The composition is finely polished with polyhedra. In this building two trapezoidal windows are bumps in every corner, on the north side door finely carved with piercings in their jambs, very similar to the Temple of Koricancha in Cusco is observed. The chroniclers tell of the existence of inlaid precious stones and gold. To the west of the temple a rectangular courtyard with 9 niches interspersed with binoculars distinguishes nails.
Intiwatana in Machu Picchu: Set on a hill made up of several terraces and walkways, is reached via 78 steps finely carved. When finished entering an open courtyard with similarly carved walls, an upper terrace platafórmica where a granite rock carved with three steps, then in the middle of a square prism of 36 cm can be seen, with a north orientation is observed -West and south-east, the four corners are directed to the four cardinal points. The so-called Intiwatana must meet two specific functions: measurement time (solstice and equinox) the effect of light and shadow, and like rock. In Quechua Inti = sun means Wata = year, solar year observatory
In Machu Picchu Sacred Rock venue in quadrangular space flanked by two rooms with three walls, the sacred rock itself is characterized by a carved monolith of 3 m in height, approximately 7 m base and 30 cm height pedestal. It resembles a cat, another angle is observed as the profile of a mountain. Characteristics presented by this group plus the two huayranas (rooms with three walls), possibly fulfilled ritual functions.
Temple of the Three Windows at Machu Picchu: located east of the main square, has a rectangular plan and the name is because the existing array of three beautiful windows and two blind bays. The architectural type developed in this room together with the main temple is the most impressive of all Machu Picchu, made of finely carved huge polyhedra and joined with millimetric precision. Detail wayrana type construction, broadly doorjamb next to the central column supporting the roof structure, there is a lithic representation trim sideburns and finely polished flat portions.
Main temple at Machu Picchu: Located north of the sacred plaza, near the Three Windows, constructed wayrana way, ie, rectangular but with only three walls; is 11 m long and 8 m wide, its walls have a thickness of 0.90 m. A carved stone served as an altar at the foot of the main wall.
The gates at Machu Picchu: the presence of the gates at Machu Picchu and especially in this sector is fairly common, presenting these various features of texture, size and architectural style that differ from each other; although all agree traditional trapezoidal shape, some are single jamb and lintel; other twin, some simple and others with different security mechanism such as stony rings, central trunks and other cross served to tie trunks and give greater security to the doors.
Mausoleum or tomb in Machu Picchu: The Huge stone block, inclined supporting the Temple of the Sun, in its lower leaves a cave that is decorated and furnished with exceptional skill and then be used as a mausoleum. It was also a place of worship and offering the mummies of the leading authorities; presented in your access point a representation of step sign of the goddess earth. Inside lithic nails and other accessories used for liturgical purposes and care for the mummies are observed.
Places in Machu Picchu: are four different levels, but are characterized by rectangular shapes classical Inca style, interconnected by stairs are recessed into the perimeters of the platforms; which has larger is the central square, which basically has the same elements that have the seats in Inca cities; fulfilled religious and social functions. The fourth area is a square flanked by terraces with their respective ports, similar to the Chavin culture (1000 BC).
Part of its architecture is also represented by the buildings located on the mountain of Huayna Picchu (Young Mountain in Quechua), whose path begins at the sacred rock; getting to the top takes about 1 hour. This pyramidal mountain houses numerous archaeological sites in the top you can see a set of platform possibly for ritual purposes, it is said that on top of the mountain, the visitor is sugestionado and has the feeling of being suspended in the air.
Another architectural manifestations, constitutes Wiñayhuayna (2650 m), which concludes the archaeological Inca Trail interminable descent, by the way INTIPUNKU dangerous but is relatively flat with a small slope going through more defined, dense, humid forests and high , mostly covered by shrubs and herbaceous between soil and rock conditions suitable to allow certain species of orchids (eg Telipogon, Maxillaria, Brassia, Platystele, Elleanthus, Stelis, Cyrtochilum, etc) that require it.
A very short distance and time you reach the point called Inti Punku or Puerta del Sol Here you can see millions of Tillandsias that line vertical and challenging cliffs, you can also see plants of different genres such as:. Epidendrum Sobralia, Encyclia, Pelexia , Ellenathus, Lycaste, Bletia, Spiranthes, Pleurothallis, etc.